Of all the ways to enjoy a book, minds wander most when we’re listening to someone else read it.
An interesting link, some quotes:
"There’s a real distinction between reading and listening that goes beyond any stuffy judgments made by book purists.
Indeed, the evidence suggests that our mode of enjoying a book can alter the way we absorb its material.
The very freedom granted by audio books—inviting the eyes to wander, and then the mind—may make them less intellectually interchangeable with printed ones than some readers would like…"
"Not long ago, a group of psychologists at the University of Waterloo in Ontario investigated the way our minds respond to various forms of reading material.
They had 235 test participants engage with three excerpts of Bill Bryson’s 2003 popular science book A Short History of Nearly Everything.
The participants read one of the excerpts silently from a computer screen, read the second excerpt aloud off the screen, and listened to the third as the screen went blank."
"During each of the three readings, the researchers tested for three cognitive impacts: mind-wandering, memory, and interest. "
“The minds of participants listening to the excerpt wandered significantly more than those reading it silently (which in turn wandered more than those reading aloud). The listening group also scored worse on the memory test than the reading groups did.”
So the basic retention hierarchy put forward is: Reading aloud only>Reading only>Listening only.
This is no different from many other studies, for example here - The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander - PMC
The big problem with these studies, of course, is that they don’t include listening and reading as a combined activity for the same content.
Studies that do so, find that listening and reading combined give a greater benefit - Gains to L2 listeners from reading while listening vs. listening only in comprehending short stories - ScienceDirect
So the retention hierarchy, likely, expands out to: Listening and reading simultaneously>Reading aloud only>Reading only>Listening only
But none of this really describes how most LingQ learners actually learn. Which is - using transcribed audio that will be, either, listened to or read first, and then later, reversal of these activities and going through the same material again.
There’s also, likely, a difference between retention beginning a language (where listening dominates) and retention at a more advanced level (where reading dominates).
A beginner hierarchy being more like: Listening then reading>Listening and reading simultaneously>Reading only>Listening only
And a fuller hierarchy, possibly, being: Reading aloud then listening>Reading then listening>Listening then reading aloud>Listening then reading>Listening and reading simultaneously>Reading aloud only>Reading only>Listening only