What is the difference between this adjectives?

Hi, guys! I’m learning English, and I was wondering if anyone could explain me the difference between these couples of adjectives:

Big / Large

Difficult / Hard

Quick / Fast

Near / Close to

Nice / Pretty

I think they are synonyms, but I’m not sure. Thanks a lot!

Just search for a literal translation of each one of these words in the context of a sentence. I’m pretty sure every single one of these ideas, and of these differentiations of ideas, exists in Spanish.

My favorite site for finding example phrases is Linguee | English-Spanish dictionary

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Some are more likely to be used in common speech vs a formal paper.

Big / Large answer

Difficult / Hard

Quick / Fast
Hmm. meaning - the difference between fast/quick/rapid - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange

Near / Close To.

Nice / Pretty. Not synonyms.

She is pretty != She is nice

These are hard. I know when I’d use each of them… one just sounds correct.

He was speeding and was driving too fast. - This sounds right
He was speeding and was driving too quick. - Should be “driving too quickly”

Edit: Well now I see the title is adjective. So:
He is a fast driver. Sounds right
He is a quick driver. sounds wrong

His glass is bigger than mine. – Sounds better to my ears than…
His glass is larger than mine. – This doesn’t sound wrong… just not common

He has a big glass & He has a large glass – both seem correct
He bought a large coke – sounds right
He bought a big coke – sounds strange

“He bought a large coke” – I would immediately think the bought the Large Size on the menu

I think if I were you i’d just assume they were all interchangeable (except Nice / Pretty) until you hear them in common usage a lot